Dark Matter and Dark Energy

What is Dark Matter

It is known as dark matter because it is matter in space that has gravitational pull, but it is unlike anything scientists have ever observed before. Dark matter and dark energy together account for 95% of the universe’s mass and energy. All that is left is a meager 5 percent of all the matter and energy that we are familiar with and understand. It may come as a surprise to learn that we do not know what the vast majority of the universe is made of. You might be thinking, “Of course we do!” You are correct.

dark matter and dark energy

 It’s true that there is a ton of amazing space stuff, but when you add everything up, it’s only a very small portion of the entire universe. There’s a lot more information available. And we haven’t figured out what it is completely yet.

Is Dark Matter Responsible for the Expansion of our Universe?

When scientists look at our universe, they can see that it is growing larger. However, if the universe is only comprised of the galaxies, stars, planets, and other objects that we are currently aware of, it should not be expanding at all. There’s something else out there. There has to be some sort of energy driving the expansion of the universe. We simply do not understand what this energy is. Moreover, we have no idea where it comes from. However, we can tell that it is present. This type of energy has been dubbed “dark energy” by scientists.

Universe Expansion

Dark Energy: A Mysterious Force.

We don’t understand dark energy very well, but we do know that it exists in large quantities. Dark energy accounts for 68 percent, or roughly two-thirds, of the universe’s total energy. Also out there in space, there is stuff that has gravitational attraction. We can see the gravitational pull of the universe on matter such as stars and galaxies. However, this isn’t your typical matter. It is not a black hole in any way. It’s nothing like anything we’ve ever heard of before. However, it is undeniably present. Dark matter is the term given to this substance by scientists. We don’t know much about dark matter, just as we don’t know much about dark energy. Strangely enough, it appears that the strange stuff makes up approximately one-quarter of the universe, or 27 percent.

Dark Energy And Dark Matter

Energy such as light, heat, and X-rays, combined with matter such as people, elephants, the planet Earth, the sun, and all of the galaxies, only accounts for 5% of the universe’s total volume! Dark matter and dark energy raise some of the most important questions in the fields of physics and space science today. A large number of scientists are employing observations and mathematics to determine what these are. This will allow us to gain a better understanding of our amazing universe, in which there is always more to discover and more to discover and learn.

Dark Energy

One possibility for explaining dark energy is that it is a property of space itself. Albert Einstein was the first person to recognize that nothingness is not the same as emptiness. Space possesses incredible properties, many of which are only now beginning to be comprehended. The first property discovered by Einstein was that it is possible for more space to be created in the universe. 

A second prediction is made by one version of Einstein’s gravity theory, the version that includes a cosmological constant: “empty space” has the ability to generate its own energy. The fact that this energy is a property of space itself means that it will not be diluted as the universe expands. As more space is created, more of this energy-of-space will be manifested in the universe. As a result, this type of energy would cause the universe to expand at an ever-increasing rate. Unfortunately, no one understands why the cosmological constant should exist in the first place, let alone why it should have the exact value that is observed to cause the observed acceleration of the universe, as is currently the case.

Quantum Theory Of Matter

In addition to the quantum theory of matter, there is another explanation for how space acquires energy. According to this theory, “empty space” is actually filled with temporary (“virtual”) particles that constantly form and then vanish from the universe’s surface. However, when physicists attempted to calculate how much energy this would release into empty space, the results came out incorrect – and incorrect by a significant amount. The result was a number that was 10120 times large. It’s difficult to get a satisfactory response in such a situation. As a result, the mystery continues.

What Dark energy may lead to?

Dark energy may also be a new type of dynamical energy fluid or field, something that fills all of space but has an effect on the expansion of the universe in the opposite direction of matter and normal energy. This is another explanation for dark energy. Some theorists have dubbed this “quintessence,” after the Greek philosophers’ fifth element, after which it was named. We still don’t understand what quintessence is like, how it interacts with other things, or why it exists, even if it is the answer.

Dark Matter Infographic

What if Einstein's theory is false?

The possibility that Einstein’s theory of gravity is incorrect is the final possibility. The expansion of the universe would be affected, but so would the behavior of normal matter in galaxies and clusters of galaxies, which would have a ripple effect throughout the universe. This fact would provide a means of determining whether a new gravity theory is the solution to the dark energy problem or not: we could observe how galaxies cluster together to form clusters to make this determination. In the event that a new theory of gravity is discovered to be necessary, what kind of theory would be developed? 

Eienstien

In what way could it accurately describe the motion of the bodies in the Solar System, as Einstein’s theory is well known for doing, while also providing us with the different prediction for the universe that we require? There are a number of potential theories, but none of them are particularly compelling. All that is required to make a decision between the various dark energy possibilities – a property of space, a new dynamic fluid, or an alternative gravity theory – is more data and better data.

Dark Matter

By fitting a theoretical model of the composition of the universe to the combined set of cosmological observations, scientists have come up with the composition that we described above, ~68 percent dark energy, ~27 percent dark matter, ~5 percent normal matter.

What is Dark Matter

We know a lot more about what dark matter isn’t than we do about what it actually is. In the first place, it’s dark, which means that we don’t get to see it in the form of stars and planets. Observations have revealed that there is far too little visible matter in the universe to account for the 27 percent required by the observations, as demonstrated by the observations. Second, it does not manifest itself in the form of dark clouds of ordinary matter, which is composed of particles known as baryons. As a result, we would be able to detect baryonic clouds through their absorption of radiation passing through them, which we have discovered. In addition, dark matter is not antimatter because it does not emit the distinctive gamma rays that are produced when antimatter annihilates with matter as we do with ordinary matter. Finally, the number of gravitational lenses we observe allows us to rule out the possibility of large galaxy-sized black holes. Light passing near dense concentrations of matter bends light from objects further away, but we do not see enough lensing events to suggest that such objects are making up the required 25 percent contribution from dark matter.

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